Speaker:王姿文
Date:2016-01-26
view(s): 374
  • 00:08 1.
    11
  • 00:43 2.
    Overview: Drawing from the Deck of Genes
  • 01:08 3.
    Concept 11.1: Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance
  • 01:03 4.
    Figure 11.2
  • 00:39 5.
    Mendel chose to track only characters that occurred in two distinct alternative forms He also used varieties that were true-breeding (plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate)
  • 00:55 6.
    In a typical experiment, Mendel mated two contrasting, true-breeding varieties, a process called hybridization The true-breeding parents are the P generation The hybrid offspring of the P generation are called the F1 generation When F1 individuals self-po
  • 01:16 7.
    The Law of Segregation
  • 00:23 8.
    Figure 11.3-3
  • 00:53 9.
    Mendel reasoned that in the F1 plants, the heritable factor for white flowers was hidden or masked in the presence of the purple-flower factor He called the purple flower color a dominant trait and the white flower color a recessive trait The factor for w
  • 00:26 10.
    Mendel observed the same pattern of inheritance in six other pea plant characters, each represented by two traits What Mendel called a “heritable factor” is what we now call a gene
  • 01:53 11.
    Table 11.1
  • 00:03 12.
    Mendel’s Model
  • 00:46 13.
    First, alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters(2因子決定遺傳特性) For example, the gene for flower color in pea plants exists in two versions, one for purple flowers and the other for white flowers These alternative versions o
  • 00:19 14.
    Figure 11.4
  • 00:36 15.
    Second, for each character, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent Mendel made this deduction(推論) without knowing about the existence of chromosomes Two alleles at a particular locus may be identical, as in the true-breeding plants of Mend
  • 00:31 16.
    Third, if the two alleles at a locus differ, then one (the dominant allele) determines the organism’s appearance, and the other (the recessive allele) has no noticeable effect on appearance In the flower-color example, the F1 plants had purple flowers bec
  • 00:55 17.
    Fourth (now known as the law of segregation), the two alleles for a heritable character separate (segregate) during gamete formation and end up in different gametes Thus, an egg or a sperm gets only one of the two alleles that are present in the organism
  • 03:07 18.
    Figure 11.5-3
  • 00:03 19.
    Mendel’s segregation model accounts for the 3:1 ratio he observed in the F2 generation of his numerous crosses The possible combinations of sperm and egg can be shown using a Punnett square, a diagram for predicting the results of a genetic cross between
  • 00:45 20.
    Useful Genetic Vocabulary
  • 01:29 21.
    Because of the effects of dominant and recessive alleles, an organism’s traits do not always reveal its genetic composition Therefore, we distinguish between an organism’s phenotype, or physical appearance, and its genotype, or genetic makeup In the examp
  • 01:01 22.
    Figure 11.6
  • 00:42 23.
    The Testcross
  • 02:42 24.
    Figure 11.7
  • 01:05 25.
    The Law of Independent Assortment
  • 00:18 26.
    Mendel identified his second law of inheritance by following two characters at the same time Crossing two true-breeding parents differing in two characters produces dihybrids in the F1 generation, heterozygous for both characters A dihybrid cross, a cross
  • 07:08 27.
    Figure 11.8
  • 00:04 28.
    Figure 11.8b
  • 00:58 29.
    The results of Mendel’s dihybrid experiments are the basis for the law of independent assortment It states that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation This law applies to genes on different, non
  • 00:02 30.
    Concept 11.2: The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance
  • 00:28 31.
    Concept 11.2: The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance
  • 00:18 32.
    The Multiplication and Addition Rules Applied to Monohybrid Crosses
  • 01:02 33.
    Figure 11.9
  • 00:13 34.
    The addition rule states that the probability that any one of two or more mutually exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities
  • 00:30 35.
    Figure 11.9
  • 00:00 36.
    The addition rule states that the probability that any one of two or more mutually exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities
  • 02:14 37.
    For example, if we cross F1 heterozygotes of genotype YyRr, we can calculate the probability of different genotypes among the F2 generation
  • 02:04 38.
    For example, for the cross PpYyRr  Ppyyrr, we can calculate the probability of offspring showing at least two recessive traits
  • 00:04 39.
    Concept 11.3: Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics
  • 00:26 40.
    Concept 11.3: Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics
  • 01:35 41.
    Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene
  • 00:35 42.
    Degrees of Dominance
  • 00:24 43.
    Figure 11.10-3
  • 01:10 44.
    Figure 11.10-3
  • 00:36 45.
    Degrees of Dominance
  • 01:21 46.
    Figure 11.10-3
  • 00:02 47.
    The Relationship Between Dominance and Phenotype Alleles are simply variations in a gene’s nucleotide sequence When a dominant allele coexists with a recessive allele in a heterozygote, they do not actually interact at all For any character, dominant/r
  • 00:28 48.
    The Relationship Between Dominance and Phenotype Alleles are simply variations in a gene’s nucleotide sequence When a dominant allele coexists with a recessive allele in a heterozygote, they do not actually interact at all For any character, dominant/r
  • 02:50 49.
    Tay-Sachs disease is fatal; a dysfunctional enzyme causes an accumulation of lipids in the brain At the organismal level, the allele is recessive At the biochemical level, the phenotype (i.e., the enzyme activity level) is incompletely dominant At the mol
  • 00:02 50.
    Frequency of Dominant Alleles Dominant alleles are not necessarily more common in populations than recessive alleles For example, one baby out of 400 in the United States is born with extra fingers or toes, a dominant trait called polydactyly
  • 01:06 51.
    Frequency of Dominant Alleles Dominant alleles are not necessarily more common in populations than recessive alleles For example, one baby out of 400 in the United States is born with extra fingers or toes, a dominant trait called polydactyly
  • 00:00 52.
    Multiple Alleles
  • 00:39 53.
    Multiple Alleles
  • 01:25 54.
    Figure 11.11
  • 00:51 55.
    Pleiotropy
  • 00:35 56.
    Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes
  • 00:36 57.
    Epistasis
  • 00:03 58.
    Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes
  • 00:14 59.
    Epistasis
  • 02:50 60.
    Figure 11.12
  • 00:46 61.
    Polygenic Inheritance
  • 01:45 62.
    Figure 11.13
  • 00:02 63.
    Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on Phenotype
  • 01:11 64.
    Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on Phenotype
  • 00:05 65.
    Concept 11.4: Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance
  • 01:36 66.
    Concept 11.4: Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance
  • 00:13 67.
    Pedigree Analysis
  • 00:02 68.
    Figure 11.14
  • 01:26 69.
    Figure 11.14
  • 00:02 70.
    Recessively Inherited Disorders
  • 00:50 71.
    Recessively Inherited Disorders
  • 00:52 72.
    Figure 11.15
  • 01:13 73.
    Cystic Fibrosis
  • 00:38 74.
    Sickle-Cell Disease: A Genetic Disorder with Evolutionary Implications
  • 01:25 75.
    Heterozygotes (said to have sickle-cell trait) are usually healthy but may suffer some symptoms About one out of ten African-Americans has sickle-cell trait, an unusually high frequency of an allele with detrimental effects in homozygotes Heterozygotes ar
  • 00:32 76.
    Dominantly Inherited Disorders
  • 00:46 77.
    Figure 11.16
  • 01:24 78.
    The timing of onset of a disease significantly affects its inheritance Huntington’s disease is a degenerative disease of the nervous system The disease has no obvious phenotypic effects until the individual is about 35 to 45 years of age Once the deterior
  • 00:58 79.
    Multifactorial Disorders
  • 00:42 80.
    Genetic Counseling Based on Mendelian Genetics
  • 00:33 81.
    Genetic Counseling Based on Mendelian Genetics
  • Index
  • Notes
  • Discuss
  • Fullscreen
mendel and gene idea
Duration: 1:14:23, Browse: 374, Update: 2020-08-24
    • 00:08 1.
      11
    • 00:43 2.
      Overview: Drawing from the Deck of Genes
    • 01:08 3.
      Concept 11.1: Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance
    • 01:03 4.
      Figure 11.2
    • 00:39 5.
      Mendel chose to track only characters that occurred in two distinct alternative forms He also used varieties that were true-breeding (plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate)
    • 00:55 6.
      In a typical experiment, Mendel mated two contrasting, true-breeding varieties, a process called hybridization The true-breeding parents are the P generation The hybrid offspring of the P generation are called the F1 generation When F1 individuals self-po
    • 01:16 7.
      The Law of Segregation
    • 00:23 8.
      Figure 11.3-3
    • 00:53 9.
      Mendel reasoned that in the F1 plants, the heritable factor for white flowers was hidden or masked in the presence of the purple-flower factor He called the purple flower color a dominant trait and the white flower color a recessive trait The factor for w
    • 00:26 10.
      Mendel observed the same pattern of inheritance in six other pea plant characters, each represented by two traits What Mendel called a “heritable factor” is what we now call a gene
    • 01:53 11.
      Table 11.1
    • 00:03 12.
      Mendel’s Model
    • 00:46 13.
      First, alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters(2因子決定遺傳特性) For example, the gene for flower color in pea plants exists in two versions, one for purple flowers and the other for white flowers These alternative versions o
    • 00:19 14.
      Figure 11.4
    • 00:36 15.
      Second, for each character, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent Mendel made this deduction(推論) without knowing about the existence of chromosomes Two alleles at a particular locus may be identical, as in the true-breeding plants of Mend
    • 00:31 16.
      Third, if the two alleles at a locus differ, then one (the dominant allele) determines the organism’s appearance, and the other (the recessive allele) has no noticeable effect on appearance In the flower-color example, the F1 plants had purple flowers bec
    • 00:55 17.
      Fourth (now known as the law of segregation), the two alleles for a heritable character separate (segregate) during gamete formation and end up in different gametes Thus, an egg or a sperm gets only one of the two alleles that are present in the organism
    • 03:07 18.
      Figure 11.5-3
    • 00:03 19.
      Mendel’s segregation model accounts for the 3:1 ratio he observed in the F2 generation of his numerous crosses The possible combinations of sperm and egg can be shown using a Punnett square, a diagram for predicting the results of a genetic cross between
    • 00:45 20.
      Useful Genetic Vocabulary
    • 01:29 21.
      Because of the effects of dominant and recessive alleles, an organism’s traits do not always reveal its genetic composition Therefore, we distinguish between an organism’s phenotype, or physical appearance, and its genotype, or genetic makeup In the examp
    • 01:01 22.
      Figure 11.6
    • 00:42 23.
      The Testcross
    • 02:42 24.
      Figure 11.7
    • 01:05 25.
      The Law of Independent Assortment
    • 00:18 26.
      Mendel identified his second law of inheritance by following two characters at the same time Crossing two true-breeding parents differing in two characters produces dihybrids in the F1 generation, heterozygous for both characters A dihybrid cross, a cross
    • 07:08 27.
      Figure 11.8
    • 00:04 28.
      Figure 11.8b
    • 00:58 29.
      The results of Mendel’s dihybrid experiments are the basis for the law of independent assortment It states that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation This law applies to genes on different, non
    • 00:02 30.
      Concept 11.2: The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance
    • 00:28 31.
      Concept 11.2: The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance
    • 00:18 32.
      The Multiplication and Addition Rules Applied to Monohybrid Crosses
    • 01:02 33.
      Figure 11.9
    • 00:13 34.
      The addition rule states that the probability that any one of two or more mutually exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities
    • 00:30 35.
      Figure 11.9
    • 00:00 36.
      The addition rule states that the probability that any one of two or more mutually exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities
    • 02:14 37.
      For example, if we cross F1 heterozygotes of genotype YyRr, we can calculate the probability of different genotypes among the F2 generation
    • 02:04 38.
      For example, for the cross PpYyRr  Ppyyrr, we can calculate the probability of offspring showing at least two recessive traits
    • 00:04 39.
      Concept 11.3: Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics
    • 00:26 40.
      Concept 11.3: Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics
    • 01:35 41.
      Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene
    • 00:35 42.
      Degrees of Dominance
    • 00:24 43.
      Figure 11.10-3
    • 01:10 44.
      Figure 11.10-3
    • 00:36 45.
      Degrees of Dominance
    • 01:21 46.
      Figure 11.10-3
    • 00:02 47.
      The Relationship Between Dominance and Phenotype Alleles are simply variations in a gene’s nucleotide sequence When a dominant allele coexists with a recessive allele in a heterozygote, they do not actually interact at all For any character, dominant/r
    • 00:28 48.
      The Relationship Between Dominance and Phenotype Alleles are simply variations in a gene’s nucleotide sequence When a dominant allele coexists with a recessive allele in a heterozygote, they do not actually interact at all For any character, dominant/r
    • 02:50 49.
      Tay-Sachs disease is fatal; a dysfunctional enzyme causes an accumulation of lipids in the brain At the organismal level, the allele is recessive At the biochemical level, the phenotype (i.e., the enzyme activity level) is incompletely dominant At the mol
    • 00:02 50.
      Frequency of Dominant Alleles Dominant alleles are not necessarily more common in populations than recessive alleles For example, one baby out of 400 in the United States is born with extra fingers or toes, a dominant trait called polydactyly
    • 01:06 51.
      Frequency of Dominant Alleles Dominant alleles are not necessarily more common in populations than recessive alleles For example, one baby out of 400 in the United States is born with extra fingers or toes, a dominant trait called polydactyly
    • 00:00 52.
      Multiple Alleles
    • 00:39 53.
      Multiple Alleles
    • 01:25 54.
      Figure 11.11
    • 00:51 55.
      Pleiotropy
    • 00:35 56.
      Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes
    • 00:36 57.
      Epistasis
    • 00:03 58.
      Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes
    • 00:14 59.
      Epistasis
    • 02:50 60.
      Figure 11.12
    • 00:46 61.
      Polygenic Inheritance
    • 01:45 62.
      Figure 11.13
    • 00:02 63.
      Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on Phenotype
    • 01:11 64.
      Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on Phenotype
    • 00:05 65.
      Concept 11.4: Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance
    • 01:36 66.
      Concept 11.4: Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance
    • 00:13 67.
      Pedigree Analysis
    • 00:02 68.
      Figure 11.14
    • 01:26 69.
      Figure 11.14
    • 00:02 70.
      Recessively Inherited Disorders
    • 00:50 71.
      Recessively Inherited Disorders
    • 00:52 72.
      Figure 11.15
    • 01:13 73.
      Cystic Fibrosis
    • 00:38 74.
      Sickle-Cell Disease: A Genetic Disorder with Evolutionary Implications
    • 01:25 75.
      Heterozygotes (said to have sickle-cell trait) are usually healthy but may suffer some symptoms About one out of ten African-Americans has sickle-cell trait, an unusually high frequency of an allele with detrimental effects in homozygotes Heterozygotes ar
    • 00:32 76.
      Dominantly Inherited Disorders
    • 00:46 77.
      Figure 11.16
    • 01:24 78.
      The timing of onset of a disease significantly affects its inheritance Huntington’s disease is a degenerative disease of the nervous system The disease has no obvious phenotypic effects until the individual is about 35 to 45 years of age Once the deterior
    • 00:58 79.
      Multifactorial Disorders
    • 00:42 80.
      Genetic Counseling Based on Mendelian Genetics
    • 00:33 81.
      Genetic Counseling Based on Mendelian Genetics
    Location
    Folder name
    普通生物學
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    王姿文
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    生科系
    Create
    2016-01-26 10:42:37
    Update
    2020-08-24 23:41:31
    Browse
    374
    Duration
    1:14:23