Speaker:王姿文
Date:2016-01-22
view(s): 571
  • 00:10 1.
    4
  • 00:32 2.
    Overview: The Fundamental Units of Life
  • 00:14 3.
    Concept 4.1: Biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry to study cells
  • 00:42 4.
    Microscopy
  • 01:10 5.
    Figure 4.2
  • 00:35 6.
    LMs can magnify effectively to about 1,000 times the size of the actual specimen Various techniques enhance contrast and enable cell components to be stained or labeled Most subcellular structures, including organelles (membrane-enclosed compartments), ar
  • 01:01 7.
    Two basic types of electron microscopes (EMs) are used to study subcellular structures Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look three-dimensional Transmission electron micro
  • 01:09 8.
    Figure 4.3a
  • 00:34 9.
    Figure 4.3b
  • 00:41 10.
    Figure 4.3c
  • 00:13 11.
    Recent advances in light microscopy Labeling molecules or structures with fluorescent markers improves visualization of details Confocal共(軛)焦顯微鏡and other types of microscopy have sharpened images of tissues and cells New techniques and labeling have impro
  • 00:36 12.
    Cell Fractionation
  • 00:48 13.
    Concept 4.2: Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions
  • 01:06 14.
    Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
  • 00:58 15.
    Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having No nucleus DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid No membrane-bound organelles Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane
  • 01:00 16.
    Figure 4.4
  • 00:35 17.
    Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope Membrane-bound organelles Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokar
  • 00:39 18.
    The plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell The general structure of a biological membrane is a double layer of phospholipids
  • 00:17 19.
    Figure 4.5
  • 01:31 20.
    Metabolic requirements set upper limits on the size of cells The ratio of surface area to volume of a cell is critical As the surface area increases by a factor of n2, the volume increases by a factor of n3 Small cells have a greater surface area relativ
  • 02:00 21.
    Figure 4.6
  • 00:34 22.
    A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell
  • 01:18 23.
    Figure 4.7a
  • 00:19 24.
    Figure 4.7b
  • 00:37 25.
    Figure 4.7c
  • 00:09 26.
    Figure 4.7d
  • 00:05 27.
    Figure 4.7e
  • 00:01 28.
    Figure 4.7d
  • 00:16 29.
    Figure 4.7e
  • 00:19 30.
    Figure 4.7f
  • 00:08 31.
    Figure 4.7g
  • 00:12 32.
    Figure 4.7h
  • 00:35 33.
    Concept 4.3: The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes
  • 00:14 34.
    The Nucleus: Information Central
  • 00:25 35.
    Pores regulate the entry and exit of molecules from the nucleus The shape of the nucleus is maintained by the nuclear lamina, which is composed of protein
  • 01:46 36.
    Figure 4.8
  • 01:13 37.
    In the nucleus, DNA is organized into discrete units called chromosomes Each chromosome is one long DNA molecule associated with proteins The DNA and proteins of chromosomes are together called chromatin Chromatin condenses to form discrete chromosomes a
  • 00:36 38.
    Ribosomes: Protein Factories
  • 00:25 39.
    Figure 4.9
  • 02:10 40.
    Concept 4.4: The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell
  • 00:19 41.
    The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory
  • 00:19 42.
    Figure 4.10
  • 00:38 43.
    Functions of Smooth ER
  • 00:37 44.
    Functions of Rough ER
  • 01:29 45.
    The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center
  • 00:25 46.
    Figure 4.11
  • 00:14 47.
    Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments
  • 00:15 48.
    Figure 4.11
  • 00:26 49.
    Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments
  • 01:04 50.
    Some types of cell can engulf another cell by phagocytosis; this forms a food vacuole A lysosome fuses with the food vacuole and digests the molecules Lysosomes also use enzymes to recycle the cell’s own organelles and macromolecules, a process called aut
  • 00:10 51.
    Slide 47
  • 00:25 52.
    Figure 4.12
  • 00:55 53.
    Figure 4.13
  • 00:25 54.
    Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments
  • 01:09 55.
    Food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis Contractile vacuoles, found in many freshwater protists, pump excess water out of cells Central vacuoles, found in many mature plant cells, hold organic compounds and water Certain vacuoles in plants and fungi carr
  • 00:58 56.
    Figure 4.14
  • 00:09 57.
    The Endomembrane System: A Review
  • 00:41 58.
    Figure 4.15-3
  • 00:54 59.
    Concept 4.5: Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another
  • 01:03 60.
    The Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
  • 00:46 61.
    The endosymbiont theory An early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell, which formed an endosymbiont relationship with its host The host cell and endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mi
  • 00:57 62.
    Figure 4.16
  • 00:41 63.
    Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion
  • 00:42 64.
    Figure 4.17
  • 00:22 65.
    Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy
  • 00:04 66.
    Slide 62
  • 01:05 67.
    Figure 4.18
  • 00:38 68.
    Peroxisomes: Oxidation
  • 00:16 69.
    Figure 4.19
  • 00:12 70.
    Concept 4.6: The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell
  • 00:21 71.
    Concept 4.6: The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell
  • 00:19 72.
    Figure 4.20
  • 00:55 73.
    Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support and Motility
  • 00:53 74.
    Figure 4.21
  • 00:31 75.
    Components of the Cytoskeleton
  • 01:30 76.
    Table 4.1
  • 00:50 77.
    Microtubules
  • 00:26 78.
    Array
  • 00:47 79.
    Figure 4.22
  • 00:12 80.
    Array
  • 00:02 81.
    Slide 76
  • 00:02 82.
    Cilia and flagella share a common structure A core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma membrane A basal body that anchors the cilium or flagellum A motor protein called dynein, which drives the bending movements of a cilium or flagellum
  • 01:39 83.
    Slide 76
  • 00:07 84.
    Cilia and flagella share a common structure A core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma membrane A basal body that anchors the cilium or flagellum A motor protein called dynein, which drives the bending movements of a cilium or flagellum
  • 00:04 85.
    Slide 76
  • 00:00 86.
    Cilia and flagella share a common structure A core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma membrane A basal body that anchors the cilium or flagellum A motor protein called dynein, which drives the bending movements of a cilium or flagellum
  • 01:19 87.
    Figure 4.23
  • 00:05 88.
    How dynein “walking” moves flagella and cilia Dynein arms alternately grab, move, and release the outer microtubules The outer doublets and central microtubules are held together by flexible cross-linking proteins Movements of the doublet arms cause the c
  • 00:27 89.
    Microfilaments (Actin Filaments)
  • 00:36 90.
    Figure 4.24
  • 00:29 91.
    Slide 82
  • 00:35 92.
    Intermediate Filaments
  • 00:47 93.
    Concept 4.7: Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities
  • 01:00 94.
    Cell Walls of Plants
  • 01:09 95.
    Plant cell walls may have multiple layers Primary cell wall: relatively thin and flexible Middle lamella: thin layer between primary walls of adjacent cells Secondary cell wall (in some cells): added between the plasma membrane and the primary cell wall P
  • 00:46 96.
    Figure 4.25
  • 00:52 97.
    The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells
  • 01:29 98.
    Figure 4.26
  • 00:33 99.
    Cell Junctions
  • 00:06 100.
    Plasmodesmata in Plant Cells
  • 00:05 101.
    Tight Junctions, Desmosomes, and Gap Junctions in Animal Cells
  • 00:21 102.
    Slide 93
  • 00:00 103.
    Slide 94
  • 00:01 104.
    Slide 95
  • 00:01 105.
    Slide 94
  • 00:00 106.
    Slide 93
  • 00:01 107.
    Slide 94
  • 00:01 108.
    Slide 95
  • 00:55 109.
    Figure 4.27
  • 00:59 110.
    The Cell: A Living Unit Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts
  • 00:28 111.
    Figure 4.28
  • Index
  • Notes
  • Discuss
  • Fullscreen
cells
Duration: 1:08:51, Browse: 571, Update: 2020-08-24
    • 00:10 1.
      4
    • 00:32 2.
      Overview: The Fundamental Units of Life
    • 00:14 3.
      Concept 4.1: Biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry to study cells
    • 00:42 4.
      Microscopy
    • 01:10 5.
      Figure 4.2
    • 00:35 6.
      LMs can magnify effectively to about 1,000 times the size of the actual specimen Various techniques enhance contrast and enable cell components to be stained or labeled Most subcellular structures, including organelles (membrane-enclosed compartments), ar
    • 01:01 7.
      Two basic types of electron microscopes (EMs) are used to study subcellular structures Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look three-dimensional Transmission electron micro
    • 01:09 8.
      Figure 4.3a
    • 00:34 9.
      Figure 4.3b
    • 00:41 10.
      Figure 4.3c
    • 00:13 11.
      Recent advances in light microscopy Labeling molecules or structures with fluorescent markers improves visualization of details Confocal共(軛)焦顯微鏡and other types of microscopy have sharpened images of tissues and cells New techniques and labeling have impro
    • 00:36 12.
      Cell Fractionation
    • 00:48 13.
      Concept 4.2: Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions
    • 01:06 14.
      Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
    • 00:58 15.
      Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having No nucleus DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid No membrane-bound organelles Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane
    • 01:00 16.
      Figure 4.4
    • 00:35 17.
      Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope Membrane-bound organelles Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokar
    • 00:39 18.
      The plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell The general structure of a biological membrane is a double layer of phospholipids
    • 00:17 19.
      Figure 4.5
    • 01:31 20.
      Metabolic requirements set upper limits on the size of cells The ratio of surface area to volume of a cell is critical As the surface area increases by a factor of n2, the volume increases by a factor of n3 Small cells have a greater surface area relativ
    • 02:00 21.
      Figure 4.6
    • 00:34 22.
      A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell
    • 01:18 23.
      Figure 4.7a
    • 00:19 24.
      Figure 4.7b
    • 00:37 25.
      Figure 4.7c
    • 00:09 26.
      Figure 4.7d
    • 00:05 27.
      Figure 4.7e
    • 00:01 28.
      Figure 4.7d
    • 00:16 29.
      Figure 4.7e
    • 00:19 30.
      Figure 4.7f
    • 00:08 31.
      Figure 4.7g
    • 00:12 32.
      Figure 4.7h
    • 00:35 33.
      Concept 4.3: The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes
    • 00:14 34.
      The Nucleus: Information Central
    • 00:25 35.
      Pores regulate the entry and exit of molecules from the nucleus The shape of the nucleus is maintained by the nuclear lamina, which is composed of protein
    • 01:46 36.
      Figure 4.8
    • 01:13 37.
      In the nucleus, DNA is organized into discrete units called chromosomes Each chromosome is one long DNA molecule associated with proteins The DNA and proteins of chromosomes are together called chromatin Chromatin condenses to form discrete chromosomes a
    • 00:36 38.
      Ribosomes: Protein Factories
    • 00:25 39.
      Figure 4.9
    • 02:10 40.
      Concept 4.4: The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell
    • 00:19 41.
      The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory
    • 00:19 42.
      Figure 4.10
    • 00:38 43.
      Functions of Smooth ER
    • 00:37 44.
      Functions of Rough ER
    • 01:29 45.
      The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center
    • 00:25 46.
      Figure 4.11
    • 00:14 47.
      Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments
    • 00:15 48.
      Figure 4.11
    • 00:26 49.
      Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments
    • 01:04 50.
      Some types of cell can engulf another cell by phagocytosis; this forms a food vacuole A lysosome fuses with the food vacuole and digests the molecules Lysosomes also use enzymes to recycle the cell’s own organelles and macromolecules, a process called aut
    • 00:10 51.
      Slide 47
    • 00:25 52.
      Figure 4.12
    • 00:55 53.
      Figure 4.13
    • 00:25 54.
      Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments
    • 01:09 55.
      Food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis Contractile vacuoles, found in many freshwater protists, pump excess water out of cells Central vacuoles, found in many mature plant cells, hold organic compounds and water Certain vacuoles in plants and fungi carr
    • 00:58 56.
      Figure 4.14
    • 00:09 57.
      The Endomembrane System: A Review
    • 00:41 58.
      Figure 4.15-3
    • 00:54 59.
      Concept 4.5: Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another
    • 01:03 60.
      The Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
    • 00:46 61.
      The endosymbiont theory An early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell, which formed an endosymbiont relationship with its host The host cell and endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mi
    • 00:57 62.
      Figure 4.16
    • 00:41 63.
      Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion
    • 00:42 64.
      Figure 4.17
    • 00:22 65.
      Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy
    • 00:04 66.
      Slide 62
    • 01:05 67.
      Figure 4.18
    • 00:38 68.
      Peroxisomes: Oxidation
    • 00:16 69.
      Figure 4.19
    • 00:12 70.
      Concept 4.6: The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell
    • 00:21 71.
      Concept 4.6: The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell
    • 00:19 72.
      Figure 4.20
    • 00:55 73.
      Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support and Motility
    • 00:53 74.
      Figure 4.21
    • 00:31 75.
      Components of the Cytoskeleton
    • 01:30 76.
      Table 4.1
    • 00:50 77.
      Microtubules
    • 00:26 78.
      Array
    • 00:47 79.
      Figure 4.22
    • 00:12 80.
      Array
    • 00:02 81.
      Slide 76
    • 00:02 82.
      Cilia and flagella share a common structure A core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma membrane A basal body that anchors the cilium or flagellum A motor protein called dynein, which drives the bending movements of a cilium or flagellum
    • 01:39 83.
      Slide 76
    • 00:07 84.
      Cilia and flagella share a common structure A core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma membrane A basal body that anchors the cilium or flagellum A motor protein called dynein, which drives the bending movements of a cilium or flagellum
    • 00:04 85.
      Slide 76
    • 00:00 86.
      Cilia and flagella share a common structure A core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma membrane A basal body that anchors the cilium or flagellum A motor protein called dynein, which drives the bending movements of a cilium or flagellum
    • 01:19 87.
      Figure 4.23
    • 00:05 88.
      How dynein “walking” moves flagella and cilia Dynein arms alternately grab, move, and release the outer microtubules The outer doublets and central microtubules are held together by flexible cross-linking proteins Movements of the doublet arms cause the c
    • 00:27 89.
      Microfilaments (Actin Filaments)
    • 00:36 90.
      Figure 4.24
    • 00:29 91.
      Slide 82
    • 00:35 92.
      Intermediate Filaments
    • 00:47 93.
      Concept 4.7: Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities
    • 01:00 94.
      Cell Walls of Plants
    • 01:09 95.
      Plant cell walls may have multiple layers Primary cell wall: relatively thin and flexible Middle lamella: thin layer between primary walls of adjacent cells Secondary cell wall (in some cells): added between the plasma membrane and the primary cell wall P
    • 00:46 96.
      Figure 4.25
    • 00:52 97.
      The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells
    • 01:29 98.
      Figure 4.26
    • 00:33 99.
      Cell Junctions
    • 00:06 100.
      Plasmodesmata in Plant Cells
    • 00:05 101.
      Tight Junctions, Desmosomes, and Gap Junctions in Animal Cells
    • 00:21 102.
      Slide 93
    • 00:00 103.
      Slide 94
    • 00:01 104.
      Slide 95
    • 00:01 105.
      Slide 94
    • 00:00 106.
      Slide 93
    • 00:01 107.
      Slide 94
    • 00:01 108.
      Slide 95
    • 00:55 109.
      Figure 4.27
    • 00:59 110.
      The Cell: A Living Unit Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts
    • 00:28 111.
      Figure 4.28
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    Folder name
    普通生物學
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    王姿文
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    生科系
    Create
    2016-01-22 14:12:42
    Update
    2020-08-24 23:32:57
    Browse
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    Duration
    1:08:51